Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an “Annex 1” country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  Prior to the Paris Agreement, the international climate agreements in power favoured mitigation before adaptation, loss and damage. Adaptation was only a small part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which in Article 2 called the convention`s priority objective “to stabilize concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous intervention in the climate system.”  While the UNFCCC`s priority has been mitigation, it has recognized adaptation as a commitment to Article 4.  The Kyoto Protocol continued to control emissions by setting targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions for industrialized countries.  The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  The objective of the agreement is to reduce the climate warming covered by Article 2 in order to implement the UNFCCC by: The Paris Agreement  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which deals with reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions, which addresses greenhouse gas emissions in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015.   Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left.
 Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. The Paris Agreement is the first international agreement to explicitly address the losses and damages that the parties to the UNFCCC have treated in the past as an integral part of adaptation.  The function of adaptation, loss and damage in tandem, but two different concepts.  The World Resources Institute explains that losses and damage are due to reality, that there are certain effects of climate change that cannot be corrected – effects that are so severe that they leave lasting or significant effects.  Climate effects related to loss and damage include events that have slowed to acidify the oceans, desertification and sea level rise, as well as sudden extreme weather events, such as intense cyclones and floods.